Link Between Brain and Behaviour

There is a direct link between our brain and how we behave. This is because the brain acts as the control centre for the actions and reactions to stimuli in the environment. For a person living with Alzheimer's, the link is disrupted and the brain's messages are no longer relayed. 

It is important to know alterations in a person's behaviour can be an indication of specific physical changes to certain areas of the brain. 

The main areas of concern in Alzheimer disease:

Limbic system controls memory and emotion; it links the lobes of the brain, enabling them to connect behaviour with memories. It also controls emotion and daily function such as sleeping and eating. The Limbic system is affected early on in Alzheimer disease. 

A common example of what can happen when the limbic system is involved is that the person may not be able to find an object having forgotten where it was put. He/she may immediately assume it has been stolen. The person may become very emotional and may blame others for taking it. To diffuse the situation, do not argue, but rather suggest a plan of how to retrieve the missing object.

Temporal Lobes contains the major memory centre of the brain called the hippocampus, also part of the Limbic System, where verbal and visual memory are processed.

Verbal memories are words. Memories related to what we read, say or hear, whereas visual memory is what we use to recognize objects, faces and places, to guide us around our environments.

The Temporal Lobes also control new learning and short-term memory. We know the Temporal Lobes are affected when the individual begins to experience lapses in short-term memory. That is to say, something that happened five minutes ago is quickly forgotten. There is no ability to retain memories of the recent past and therefore the person lives in the present moment. What is seen now is reality.

For example, if you have been for a visit and left, the person that is beyond the early stage of the disease will have no memory of your visit to them. You were never there, because you are not there now. The person will no longer be able to connect time and place to the present reality.

The person may lose vocabulary skills and have difficulty understanding what words mean. He/she may go out to a familiar place and then not know how he/she got there or how to get home again.

Damage to the temporal occipital part on both sides of the brain may also cause Agnosia, that is not recognizing familiar faces, objects or places.

For the person with Alzheimer disease, losing the connection to familiar faces must be terrifying. And for caregivers, this can be one of the most heart breaking symptoms of the disease; the moment when their loved one no longer knows who they are.

A useful tip is to have photos of special people prominently displayed with their names clearly shown. This can be used to help the person reminisce about special times with people who are important to them.

The condition also applies to objects. The person may no longer recognize a familiar object or its purpose. For example, not understanding what a hair brush is for.

Part of the Alzheimer Journey is about discovering how the progressive degeneration of brain cells will impact an individual's behaviour, mood and emotions.

When supporting a person with dementia who is behaving out of character, try and look beyond the behaviour itself to discover the root cause. Sometimes behavioural changes can be a result of frustration, a sense of being out of control, or a feeling of not being listened to or understood.

Personality changes could be the earliest sign of Alzheimer's, so here are 10 early symptoms of dementia to be aware of.